Placenta previa is an obstetric complication that occurs in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. It may cause serious morbidity and mortality to both the fetus and the mother. It is one of the leading causes of vaginal bleeding in the second and third trimesters.
Placenta previa is generally defined as the implantation of the placenta over or near the internal os of the cervix.
- Total placenta previa occurs when the internal cervical os is completely covered by the placenta.
- Partial placenta previa occurs when the internal os is partially covered by the placenta.
- Marginal placenta previa occurs when the placenta is at the margin of the internal os.
- Low-lying placenta previa occurs when the placenta is implanted in the lower uterine segment. In this variation, the edge of the placenta is near the internal os but does not reach it.
- A recent study concluded that more than two thirds of women with a distance of more than 10 mm from the placental edge to cervical os have vaginal delivery without an increased risk of hemorrhage.
Nursing Diagnosis for Placenta Previa
- Deficient Fluid Volume related to loss of vascular fluid overload.
- Readiness for enhanced tissue perfusion related to Hypovolemia.
- Risk for injury (the mother) related to tissue hypoxia / organs, abnormal blood profile, immune system damage.