Nursing Diagnosis for Glomerulonephritis
Glomerulonephritis is inflammation of the glomeruli, is caused by a bacterial infection, viral and immune reactions. The glomerulus is a small organ in the kidney acts as a filter. Glomerular function remove excess fluid, electrolyte and waste from the bloodstream and pass into the urine.
Glomerulonephritis is divided into two:
1. Acute glomerulonephritis
Acute glomerulonephritis is a sudden inflammation of the glomerulus.
2. Chronic glomerulonephritis
Chronic glomerulonephritis is a long-standing inflammation of the cells of the glomerulus. This disorder can result from acute glomerulonephritis does not improve or arise spontaneously.
Glomerulonephritis is a major cause of kidney failure.
Signs and symptoms
Signs and symptoms of glomerulonephritis depends on the shape and the cause. Signs and symptoms include:
- Pink urine due to red blood cells into the urine (hematuria).
- Frothy urine due to excess protein (proteinuria).
- High blood pressure (hypertension).
- Swelling of the face, arms, legs and stomach.
- Fatigue due to anemia or kidney failure.
- Oliguria to anuria which may take 2-3 days. Occur as a result of reduced glomerular filtration. Picture such as acute renal insufficiency with uremia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia and hydremia. Although oliguria or anuria old rare in children, but if this is the case then peritoneal dialysis sometimes necessary.
- Hypertensive encephalopathy is a cerebral symptoms due to hypertension. There are symptoms such as visual disturbances, dizziness, vomiting and convulsions. This is due to spasm of blood vessels locally with anoxia and brain edema.
- Circulatory disorders such as dyspnea, orthopnea, presence of wet crackles, an enlarged heart and heightened blood pressure that is not only due to spasm of blood vessels but also due to the increase in plasma volume. Can be enlarged heart and heart failure due to hypertension and persistent abnormalities in the myocardium.
- Anemia arising due to hypervolemia in addition erythropoietic synthesis decreased.
5 Nursing Diagnosis for Glomerulonephritis
- Ineffective Tissue Perfusion related to water retention and hypernatremia
- Risk for Imbalanced Fluid Volume related to oliguric
- Risk for Imbalanced Nutrition: Less than Body Requirements related to anorexia.
- Activity Intolerance related to fatigue.
- Risk for Disturbed Sleep Pattern related to immobilization and edema.