COPD is caused by environmental factors and lifestyle. Are largely preventable. Smoking is estimated to be the cause of 80-90% of cases of COPD. Men between the ages of 30-40 years at most COPD. This disease is associated with the risk factors contained in the patient, among others:
- Cigarette smoking is prolonged.
- Air pollution.
- Recurrent pulmonary infections.
- Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency.
- Deficiency of anti-oxidants.
Hard to breathe.
Cough and sputum production are becoming more especially in the morning.
Losing weight is quite drastic.
Patients easy to feel tired and many who are not physically able to perform daily activities.
Loss of appetite due to the increasingly abundant phlegm production.
Decrease in body strength.
10 Nursing Diagnosis for COPD
- Ineffective Airway Clearance related to bronchoconstriction, increased sputum production, ineffective cough, fatigue / decreased energy and bronkopulmonal infection.
- Ineffective Breathing Pattern related to shortness of breath, mucus, bronchoconstriction and airway irritants.
- Impaired Gas Exchange related to ventilation perfusion inequality.
- Activity Intolerance related to imbalance between supply with oxygen demand.
- Imbalanced Nutrition: Less than Body Requirements related to anorexia.
- Disturbed Sleep Pattern related to discomfort, the setting position.
- Self-Care Deficit Bathing / Hygiene, Dressing / Grooming, Feeding, toileting related secondary fatigue due to increased respiratory effort and the insufficiency of ventilation and oxygenation.
- Anxiety related to threat to self-concept, the threat of death, unmet needs.
- Ineffective Individual Coping related to lack of socialization, anxiety, depression, low activity levels and inability to work.
- Knowledge Deficit related to lack of information, do not know the source of information.