Otitis media is inflammation in the middle ear. Otitis media is actually the most common diagnosis in children under the age of 15 years.
Acute otitis media is an infection of the middle ear caused by the entry of pathogenic bacteria in the middle ear (Smeltzer, 2001).
- Eustachian tube dysfunction or obstruction is a major cause of otitis media caused the ciliary body's defense disrupted mucosal eustachian tube, so that prevention of invasion of germs into the middle ear may also be disrupted.
- The upper respiratory tract infection, inflammation of the surrounding tissue (eg, sinusitis, adenoid hypertrophy), or an allergic reaction (eg allergic rhinitis). In children, the more frequent upper respiratory tract infection, the more likely the occurrence of acute otitis media (AOM). In infants, AOM easy because eustachiusnya tube short, wide, and is located some horizontal.
- Bacteria. The bacteria are commonly found as causative microorganism is Streptococcus peumoniae, Haemophylus influenza, Moraxella catarrhalis, and other pyogenic bacteria, such as Streptococcus hemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Pneumococcus vulgaris.
Signs and symptoms
Depending on the stage of the disease and the age of the client.
- Pain and filled in the ear because the eustachian tube that experienced hyperemia and edema.
- Hearing is usually still normal.
- Pain and fever intensified.
- In children: high heat accompanied by vomiting, seizures, and meningismus.
- Hearing begins to decline.
- Exit discharge from the ear.
- Pain is reduced because the drainage is formed as a result of rupture of the tympanic membrane.
- Fever is reduced.
- Hearing loss is increased due to the disruption of air conduction mechanism in the middle ear.
- Tenderness over the mastoid region, and will feel heavy at night.
- Hearing improved or returned to normal.
Nursing Diagnosis for Acute Otitis Media
- Acute pain related to inflammation of the middle ear hearing.
- Anxiety related to health status.
- Impaired verbal communication related to the effects of hearing loss.
- Disturbed sensory perception related to obstruction, infection of the middle ear or auditory nerve damage.
- Social isolation related to pain, foul-smelling otorrhoea.
- Knowledge deficit related to cognitive limitations and lack of interest in learning.