Gastritis is an inflammation of the stomach lining. Many things can cause gastritis. Most often the cause is infection with the same bacteria -- Helicobacter pylori -- that causes stomach ulcers. An autoimmune disorder, a backup of bile into the stomach, or long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen can also cause gastritis. In some cases, the stomach lining may be "eaten away," leading to sores (peptic ulcers) in the stomach or first part of the small intestine. Gastritis can occur suddenly (acute gastritis) or gradually (chronic gastritis). In most cases, gastritis does not permanently damage the stomach lining.
Signs and Symptoms:
The most common symptoms of gastritis are stomach upset and pain. Other possible symptoms include:
- Indigestion (dyspepsia)
- Abdominal pain
- Loss of appetite
- Vomiting, possibly of blood or material that looks like coffee-grounds
- Dark stools
Several tests can be used to make a diagnosis. These include endoscopy of the stomach, where a thin tube with a light and a camera on the end is inserted down your throat to your stomach. This allows the doctor to see into your stomach and take samples (called a biopsy) from the lining if needed. The laboratory tests you may need will depend on the cause of your gastritis. A stool test may be used to check for the presence of blood, or a biopsy may be taken of the tissues of your esophagus or stomach. A breath test may detect H. pylori, or samples from your esophagus or stomach may be taken to look for this bacteria.
Making lifestyle changes, such as avoiding the long-term use of alcohol, NSAIDs, coffee, and drugs, may help prevent gastritis and its complications (such as a peptic ulcer). Reducing stress through relaxation techniques -- including yoga, tai chi, and meditation -- can also be helpful.
Nursing Diagnosis for Gastritis
1. Fluid And Electrolyte Imbalances related to inadequate intake, vomiting.
2. Imbalanced Nutrition Less Than Body Requirements related to inadequate intake, anorexia.
3. Impaired sense of comfort: acute pain related to gastric mucosal inflammation.
4. Activity Intolerance related to physical weakness.
5. Knowledge deficit related to lack of information.